Next Generation Mobile Networks ?

NGMN is based on the previous UMTS infrastructures in order to guarantee a rapid and cost-effective expansion of the existing 3G mobile radio networks. One of the advantages over the existing networks with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is the significantly higher speed with up to 100 Mbit / s = 0.75 GB / min. Furthermore, the end devices used should be able to be permanently connected to the Internet. This should be possible through a more efficient use of the available frequency spectrum, which should also enable a simpler network architecture and lead to latency times of approximately 10 ms. The network range should not change.

Like the WiMAX and Flash OFDM radio technologies, NGMN is based on OFDM . In contrast to the methods mentioned, the frequencies are assigned adaptively in NGMN, that is, the user is assigned the network resources that the user requires at intervals of up to 0.5 ms. This enables better deceleration behavior than in other OFDM systems.

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Since the beginning of 2005, the standardization of NGMN has been carried out by the standardization body Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

LTE and 4G “Fourth Generation”
→ Main article : LTE-Advanced
4G describes the successor generation of the 3G mobile communication standard with significantly higher data rates. The project of cellular equipment manufacturers and cellular network operators is known under the name LTE-Advanced (4G).

Conversion
Mobile radio networks consist of radio cells, the so-called cells, from which connections are established. If a mobile phone or another device, such as a laptop with a UMTS card, is switched on, this device logs into the mobile network via the network database based on the data stored on the SIM card. The device first logs on to a local database, which can also contain several “honeycombs”. If the location of the device changes, the software of the mobile communication device notices this and logs in automatically at the next local exchange. The rough structure of the signal structure did not change when the networks were expanded to include the “third generation” UMTS technology; the basic scheme can be retained. The advantage of this approach: The existing infrastructure can be used, which only needs to be expanded with the required technical components. So that means – simply put – the 4G components are simply installed on the existing radio masts.

Features: LTE

  • 100 Mbit / s 1 receive data rate (“downstream”)
  • Up to 1 Gbit / s 1 if the user is at a fixed location to the next station (usually a radio tower)
  • Compatibility with existing networks (4G devices can also work with older technology, such as GSM, UMTS etc.)
  • 50 Mbit / s 1 transmission data rate (“upstream”)
  • 20 MHz required frequency bandwidth
  • Latency times of ≈ 10 ms
  • Higher spectrum efficiency (lower costs per data volume)
  • Modulation: OFDMA, downstream: QPSK / 16 / 64QAM, upstream: / 16QAM

5G “Fifth Generation”

The successor 5G is being worked on. International network operators and infrastructure next generation mobile networks  providers discuss technical requirements and use cases. Through the , the European Commission is investing EUR 700 million in research and innovation funding related to 5G.  The  has specified the first functions of 5G with Release 15  and is currently working on Release 16 which should contain further functions announced for 5G.

At the end of March 2019, Austria’s first commercial 5G network for 200 customers in 17 cities and municipalities went live. South Korea took part in the April 3, 2019 the first country coverage 5G in operation. In the United States, 5G was released on the same day in the cities of  In Germany, an auction of mobile radio licenses by the taking place since March 19, 2019 .

5G should build on the existing 4G. Significant innovations of 5G are expected only when using frequencies above 6 GHz. The radio cells are expected to be expanded more closely at 5G in cities than at 4G. 

Properties

The 5G standard (Release 15 [5] ) has been completed and released. Compared to the 4G standard, the 5G technology has the following properties:

  • Data rates up to 20 Gbit / s
  • Use of higher frequency ranges
  • Increased frequency capacity and data throughput
  • Real-time transmission, 100 billion mobile devices worldwide can be addressed simultaneously
  • Latency times below 1 ms
  • Compatibility of machines and devices

Literature

  • N. Döring, C. Dietmar: Media production for mobile communication. In: Handbuch Medienproduktion. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2004.
    See J. Schiller: Mobile Communication. Munich 2003: Pearson Studium, pp. 15-18.
  • N. Döring, C. Dietma: Media production for mobile communication . In: Handbuch Medienproduktion. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2004, pp. 14–15.
  • Goran, Galunic: 4th generation mobile communications. Seminar work. University of Applied Sciences Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, 2004.
  • Paul Klimsa, Heidi Krömker: Mobile communication. In: Heidi Krömker, Paul Klimsa (ed.): Handbuch Medienproduktion. VS Publishing House for Social Sciences, 2005.
  • European Commission:

As a live and let live the spontaneous emergence of non-aggressive behavior is between military units called, who, during the First World War were facing at the front as enemies. After the first occurrence, this behavior could be expanded into a system of unstable cooperation. This was done through the avoidance of violence or ritualized use next generation mobile networks  of violence without any intention of injury, as well as through de-escalation , but also by means of predictable and moderate retaliation for violations of the implicit agreements. The communication with the opponent happened in contrast to the open fraternizationmostly through (non-) action instead of language. The pattern of behavior occurred particularly during long periods of stagnation in the position war on the western front . The best known, if atypical, example is the Christmas Peace of 1914 .

The system was most widespread on quiet front sections between November 1914 and the end of 1916, before it was undermined by offensive patrols and shock troops on orders from higher staffs, to finally collapse completely with the German spring offensive of 1918 and the subsequent movement war . The “live-and-let-live” strategy is a subject of investigationGame theory .
Occurrence
The principle of living-and-living was manifested in the deliberate refraining from using violence during the war. Typical forms of behavior in the sense of the principle were:

There is practically a ceasefire during the period when food is brought to the front and consumed . [1]
Field artillery firing at the same place in the no man’s land or behind the enemy trenches at the same time every day , making the artillery fire predictable and easily avoidable [2]
Work commands, exposed at night in the no man’s land, repairing the field fortifications and repairing barbed wire moorings, ignoring each other [3]
Snipers targeting; in individual cases so long at the same point on a house in the opponent’s back country until there was a hole in the wall [4]

next generation mobile networks
This behavior occurred at the level of smaller units, typically down to battalion size . This results from the social cohesion of these units, in which deviating (too aggressive) behavior of individual soldiers would have been informally punished. Battalions were detached together and rotated with other battalions in the front line. When they were handed over to the following troops, the local customs of living and letting them go were often passed on orally. [5]

Not all units took part in live-and-let-live regularly when they had the opportunity. There were units on both sides of the front that quickly “turned a quiet section into a hornet nest” [6] . Ashworth (1980) calls these battalions ” elite units” and on the British side exemplifies the 2nd Battalion of the Royal Welch Fusiliers and the 1st Battalion of the Royal West Kents . The naming of the battalion numbers is relevant for British regiments, since the battalions with higher numbers were assigned to the traditional regiments (“Regular Army”), but originated from the New Army or Territorial Army .[6

 

] On the German side, the ward regiments and certain regiments of the Prussian line infantry were considered to be less inclined to apply the principle of living and letting them live. On the other hand, the Saxon regiments had a reputation for following the principle. [7]

Conclusion and maintaining
The principle of living and letting go was rarely agreed in open local ceasefires , as was the case with the 1914 Christmas Peace. More often it came about through demonstrative behavior: either by not using the weapons where that would have been easy, or by using them in a purely ritual or predictable form. The latter signaled the non-lethal intention and maintained the appearance of aggressive behavior in front of superiors. This could also have been caused by external conditions that made fighting very difficult, such as heavy rain and the associated mud and flooded trenches. [8th]

British artillery officers in front of the entrance to  next generation mobile networks their shelter, which was “better secured and more comfortable” than a trench
In addition to the practical consideration that compliance with the principle would ensure their own survival, many soldiers were reluctant to kill their directly visible counterparts, without this having been preceded by a fight. The artillery, which only fired at coordinates, had no such inhibitions. In addition, the artillery was less exposed to retaliation. The trench crews therefore attempted to persuade the assigned artillery observation officers, who directed the fire, to adhere to the principle. This happened, for example, through preferential provision of food and a safe shelterFor the observer,

 

direct agreements between infantry next generation mobile networks  officers and artillery observers have also survived. Field artillery batteries were often assigned to a certain battalion over a long period of time, so that social ties could form. Coordination with the heavy artillery , which was also controlled centrally, was more problematic . If the fire of their own heavy artillery was known in the front line, the enemy trench crews were sometimes warned by signals. [9]

After the principle had been practiced by tacit agreement between the front troops, it perpetuated itself – ” You shouldn’t wake sleeping dogs “. If one side did use violence, this was answered locally by counter violence, often according to the “three-to-one” principle: a targeted shot from the opposite side that did not correspond to the principle of “let-and-let-live” was answered with three targeted shots, and then put the fire back on.

The possible retaliation next generation mobile networks  for violations of the principle was important for the maintenance. Paradoxically, the front sections where the trenches faced each other for calling and throwing distances were the safest. On mountainous sections such as in the Vosges , the ditches were sometimes only a few meters apart. Even a use of hand grenades without warning would have been devastating and was exactly why avoided. [10] Instead, there were developed the trenches consuming pioneering technology, which would have been impossible without mutual ignoring the construction commando.

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