A revolution is a fundamental and sustainable structural change in one or more systems, which usually takes place abruptly or in a relatively short time. It can be peaceful or violent. A revolution is a fundamental and sustainable structural change in one or more systems, which usually takes place abruptly or in a relatively short time There are revolutions in various areas of social and cultural life. The terms evolution and reform are considered antonyms : they stand for slower developments revolution 2020 pdf or for changes without radical change. The exact definition is controversial; there is no generally accepted theory of revolution about the necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of each revolution, the phases of its course and its short-term and long-term consequences
Word origin and concept development
The foreign word revolution was borrowed from the late Latin revolutio (“rotation”, literally “rolling back”) in the 15th century and initially referred to the orbit of the celestial bodies as a technical word in astronomy . Nicholas Copernicus used the Latin word revolutio with this meaning in his main work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543).
In England in the 17th century, the term was used in relation to the Glorious Revolution in 1688 in the sense of restoring the old legitimate state (a turning back of social conditions).  The present main significance of violent political upheaval came, starting from the French révolution .  , in the 18th century. In the history of the GDR , for example, the term early bourgeois revolution developed a very special interpretation. 
March Revolution 1848 in Berlin
The term revolution is used today for profound changes in a wide variety of areas, such as science , culture , fashion , etc. Today, political or social revolutions are crisis-related transformation revolution 2020 pdf processes in which the legal or constitutional decision-making process is overridden and that until then ruling elite is deposed and another political system with other representatives is installed. 
A real definition does not exist because of the diversity of the many processes called revolution. For example, it is controversial whether a revolution must be carried out from below, i.e. by an underprivileged social group or class , whether revolutions always have to be violent or whether unsuccessful, i.e. depressed attempts at revolution can be described as a revolution or as a delimitation to it as revolts or uprisings .  The historian Reinhart Koselleckcomplained in 1984 that the term.
Revolutions can be classified according to various criteria. There is a widespread distinction between carrier strata, the interests of which are to be asserted in the revolution: civil revolutions are identified (such as the Glorious Revolution in 1688 or the French Revolution ), proletarian revolutions (such as the October Revolution in 1917) and agricultural revolutions such as A revolution is a fundamental and sustainable structural change in one or more systems, which usually takes place abruptly or in a relatively short time the Mexican revolution , the Chinese revolution and various wars of independence in the process of decolonization after the Second World War .  The political scientistIring Fetscher also calls the “intellectual revolution” or “manager revolution”. 
Another classification criterion is the ideology of the protagonists revolution 2020 pdf of the revolutionary movement: Accordingly, a distinction must be made between democratic , socialist and fascist revolutions.  Revolutions can also be classified according to their causes, taking into account exogenous factors (such as wars and economic dependencies) and endogenous factors (population dissatisfaction, modernization processes and their sometimes negative consequences – such as pauperism at the beginning of the industrial age- change in values and ideologies that are shared among the population, etc.). [8th]
revolution 2020 pdf
Political scientist Samuel P. Huntington distinguishes between revolutions of the western and eastern types: those such as the French or the Russian revolution would occur in weak traditional regimes that were increasingly disintegrating in a crisis . Therefore, only a small amount of violence is necessary to overthrow it. Subsequently, the conflict between moderate and radical revolutionaries was more violent. During this struggle, the revolution spread from the metropolis in which it originated to the rural population. In contrast, revolutions of the eastern type would arise in colonized onesTerritories or military dictatorships : Since these regimes are strong, they started from guerrillas operating in rural areas, from where they conquered the capital with considerable violence and even civil war . Examples of Eastern revolutions are the Chinese Revolution and the Vietnam War .  The political scientist Robert H. Dix added yet the Latin American added type, a in the urban guerrillas allied with urban elites and so crashes the old regime.
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